Circular Industrial System

Circular economy implies lots of variabilities that call for very different and innovative production systems.
Indeed, in a classical manufacturing process, materials entering in systems and machines are controlled and so, the processes are repeatable. In a circular industrial system, post-used products are distributed, their quality, quantity and return date cannot be managed accurately. So, all the processes along the value chain have to adapt to the state of the collected post-used products. Not only the manufacturing processes but also the value chain itself, from the collection to the customer, must be flexible and agile. Agility also makes sense with the highly emergent demand of personalized products. So, the core scientific question addressed is the agility of the new circular industrial systems.